Sati Practice – Historical facts on sati sahagamana which we don’t know

sati sahagamana in india

This article is about historical facts about sati practice in our ancient days.

Our Indian culture has given at most value and status to women. For food we worship Sri Annapurna Devi and for wealth, we worship lord Laxmi Devi and for education and wisdom we worship lord Saraswathi Devi and for water, we worship rivers and worshipping earth we compare with bhoodevi and finally motherland we Indian worship Bharat Mata.

So here we compare every emotion as a mother (females goddess).

So if we analyze the above great things, Do you think our culture encourages sati practice or satidaha pratha, like forcing her to enter into the fire of her husband’s pyre. after her husband’s death.

If we define actually what is sati? means,it is a widow burning herself to death on husband pyre.

Pyre meaning – A heap of combustible material, especially one for burning a corpse as part of a funeral ceremony.


Let us know the authentic historical facts one by one to burst the myths.

Sati practice – Striking historical facts

Was sati (suttee) practice a religious obligation mentioned in ancient texts?

Does sati pratha have its origin in the Vedas?

No the actual meaning mentioned below from rigveda.

It is important Funeral hymn is from rigveda  10.18.7 . The hymn was used by critics to propagate that sati was mentioned in our scriptures. But actually what this hymn says.

It tells the widow to sit next to her husband’s dead body and moisten your eyes with ghee and get up to resume your place in the world. The last word agre (earlier) was replaced with word Agni (fire) in this hymn.

So the Hindu bashers deliberately misinterpreted that sati tradition is a religious obligation.

But the above scripture is not saying like that.

The experts of dharma Sastra condemned this distortion. That sati daha pratha in india is not a religious obligation.

In ancient days remarriage is not there and loyalty towards the husband. So our culture says the process of converting our sexual desire, energy into spiritual desires, energy is known as sati. That can happen only with the fire on inner knowledge and gyan marg

In garuda Purana 4th chapter verses 90 to 98 mention abt sati. They are some exceptions if the women have children or if she is pregnant she must avoid this practice. 

In Devi Bhagavatham also some scriptures mentioned abt sati practice.

Scriptures and scholars views on sati sahagamana-

Kautilya Artha sastra did not refer to sati funeral or he never mentioned any instances.

Orientalists like HH Wilson also never told that sati system was mentioned in Hindu scriptures.

Dharma sutras or smrithis mentioned the duties of a wife but do not recommend sati pratha

manu describes wives as worthy of being worshipped that lamps lit the households and manu also says the wife is legal heir of the husband property after his death.

yajnavalkya describes wives were gifts of gods and strict rules for widow bit, not self-immolation.

vishnu smrithi says a good wife, who perseveres in a chaste life after the death of her lord, will go to heaven like (perpetual) students, even though she has no son.

Vyas Smriti, Kalidas, court poet of harsha kadambari he condemns of sati (banabatta)

some scholars medhatithi compared sati practice as black magic.

late medieval period smrithis till time had carried no instruction on methods of sati ,rituals. 

In the 18th century Thanjavur a book stree dharma paddati written by triyambaka pandit threat to Hinduism by islam and missionaries Europeans.He told how to preserve threats he recommended way of salvation in a troubled scenario to protect their chastity, but the option of leading aesthetic life is always open

Mahaveer van tantra  also condemns sati.

Ancient religion legal texts mentioned austere life for women.

Was sati forced?

Here in india the marriage tradition marriage is a sacrament not a contract. Generally, our culture says life partner is half of her husband and she is having equal priority in a family.

If we see images of artha nareeshwar shiva has given his entire half place to lord Parvathi . It means wife is equal to her husband and she is the soul of her husband.

The travellers who saw sati saw women while performing sati they indicate fingers. If suppose if she shows 4 that means she will commit sati another 3 times. It totals ads up to 7

So in our marriage rituals, the couple circumambulates 7 times around the fire circle. The circle is 360 degrees. This relation is up to the next 7 rebirths. The only number which cannot divide 360 degrees is 7. So the couple go around 7 times ensuring that nothing can divide their relationship. We Indians firmly believe life after death.

Travellers who observed our traditions wrote in their travelogues that our women are so emotional and love towards her husband and they were taught to love her husband. so if he dies, then the women with love and attachment on him she uses to perform sati.

Hindu scriptures which i mentioned they say if we perform sati they both will go to heaven and next rebirth they will again become wife and husband. In this way a lot of things mentioned. We Indians firmly believe life after death.

So now we should not come to the Conclusion that women performed sati and people also encouraged it. Not at all. In garuda Purana, Devi Bhagavatam it is mentioned as voluntary not forced. so sati in history was not forced.

Here the Rigvedic scripture is distorted and the garuda Purana , etc mentioned about sati is just a suggestion only not force. Our Hindu scriptures never mentioned killing innocents and our Hindus never behaved in a rigid and foolish manner from past to present. May be few instances but not high.

So sati was never a forced tradition in India. so our Indian wife forced was not true it was her personal choice.

 who is sati in India tradition?

The sati came from sat means chaste, faithful widow sat goodness or virtue. virtues women, personal strength. This is the origin of the word sati.

In Puranas, sati is a reincarnation of Lord Adi shakti the wife of lord shiva. Her father Daksha performs a yagna and in that ritual function, he insults lord shiva. because of humiliation to her husband,sati commits self-immolation. This is the story of sati death.

Some great women in history sita, anasuya, Savitri got sati name without self-immolation.

There is no sanskrit word for sati (widow immolation). Some expressions were used sahagamana,sahamarana,anumarana.These are not sati .

The Europeans described the widow burning funeral rite as sati .

In ancient days women who performed this self-immolation with her husband considered as a goddess and people use to worship her by constructing sati stupas and stones.

Sathi in Ramayana-

There are no instances of sati practice in Ramayana and after the death of Dasaratha also his 3 wives did not commit sati.

After Ravana’s death, mandodari also did not enter into her husband’s fire funeral. But his son Megha Nath wife sulochana committed sati 

Sati in Mahabharat-

After the death of Pandu raja and one of his wives madri only tried to dissuade herself because of guilt feeling that her husband died due to her. Another wife kunti didnt persuade herself and she took care of the pandavas.

When Lord Krishna Father Vasudev died, then his 4 wives committed sati .but it was not forcefully.

When lord Krishna died his wives did not commit sati and lived aesthetic life.

Finally in Mahabharat lakhs of soldiers died and their wives did not commit sati . Some might have dissuaded themselves but we did not find any thousands or lakhs of sati instances historically or Veda Vyas Mahabharat book.

Lets come to facts and figures who, when, where and how many instances of sati occurred in the medieval, ancient period and regions like central, south India and other parts of India.

The practice of sati in Ancient India-

There was an impression that sati was a widespread practice in ancient days and thousands and lakhs of women are immolated themselves or forced. 

We should know the history of sati to burst these myths. 

The first recorded instance of sati was recorded in 3rd-century b.c during the alexander period. He was returning to his country saw one Indian contingent name Shashi gupt died and his 2 wives are fighting each other at the dead body who should commit sati. 

sati stone in rajastan
sati stone

This is an eye witness and it was recorded by Greek historian Diodorus.

After another instance happened in 510 A.D. We can found in the Eran stone inscription pillar in Madhya Pradesh. A famous king Bhanu gupt soldier goparaja who died in battle and his wife did self-immolation with her husband. 

In the 6th century a Chinese historian hieun Tsang recorded evidence of sati . His mother also immolated when her husband was ill. He tried to convince not to do but she committed sati. 

But when his sister tried to immolate for her husband’s death but he persuaded her not to immolate and she accepted after that she became an advisor to him in the court. 

In the 7th century during Rajendra Chola and a soldier wife insisted her self for sati when he died and her father erected a sati stone in memory of her.

Up to 1000 A.D, sati incidents are rare in Deccan and exception in rare south. Up to 900 A.D in Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas kingdoms no sati cases occurred. 

sati stone in chennai government museum
sati stone in museum

Some queens 4-5 women committed in sati and sati was extremely rare among the common people.

When Chhatrapati Sivaji died in 1680 her one of his wives committed the practice of sati.

Sati system in India( central and south India)-


In Madhya Pradesh Sagar region during the 15th century to the 18th-century weavers, barbers, mansion families have few instances of sati.

In Karnataka inscriptions like epigraphic carnatica during the period of 1000 to 1400 A.D., It says only 11 cases were recorded. 

During the period of 1336 A.D to 1646 A.D only 64 cases occurred as per sati inscriptions.

Here none of the vijaynagaram Queens did sati when their kings died.

From 14th to 16-century sati happened in mostly warrior families.

In Maratha kingdom in village happened but Marathas never encouraged and his son Rajaram wife also came across this practice.

In Maharastra, Gujarat very few cases and in peshwas 1 case occurred.

Ahilya Bhai Holkar when her husband died she bravely stood and ruled the kingdom. 

Jhansi Laxmi bhai fought with the British bravely after her husband’s death and she did not commit sati.

In the book veer, Vinod was written by Shyamal kaviraj and he mentions only 2% of women committed sati. He says women did with lot of love and he admires their bravery.

meenakshi jain on sati


Sati in bengal-

Here particularly why I mentioned Bengal because the missionaries did a lot of propaganda that in west Bengal lot of sati incidents are happening. So let us see the facts.

How missionaries and British did bad propaganda and their act made women to commit sati and suicide that I will write a detailed article.

The most important thing is no sati stones or records were found in Bengal.

In fact the brahmin scholar of the manu samhita does not mention the practice of sati.

Sati in nepal-

It happened in 464 c.e and king name is Mannar dev father died her mother expressed a desire to commit sati but it did not happen.

Sati in other civilizations-

Sati is there in other civilizations also. In China and Egypt when the kings died they use to bury with their number of wives along with him. In Europe, Before the Christian era self-immolation was there.

Especially we need to mention the samurai female ritual suicide in japan. It is called as female seppuku.(Jigai)

The wives of samurai use to cut the arteries of the neck with one stroke with a knife called tanto. It is done to avoid capture by enemies after the war.

Sati described by foreigners and historians.

Indians from ancient times to present has a lot of travelers, historians and researchers and students visited and stayed for a long time and also the invaders.

So what is their view and observation on sati mentioned in their records, books letters or travelogues, etc from 2nd B.C to 19th century?

Alberuni who is a court member of Muhammad Ghazni. He refers to sati in 1000A.D that the wives of kings committed sati but he never witnessed any incident with his eyes as he spent a lot of years in India.

Marco polo in the 13th century referred to the custom in Malabar but he did not witness any sati incident.

Friar Roderic wrote when a man dies they burnt a wife with him but if she has sons she could live with them.

In the 14th century a Moroccan traveler saw instances in Madhya Pradesh when 3 women proceeding to immolate themselves because of husbands died in the battlefield.

William Hawkins a ship captain saw an incident in a kingdom widow were brought to the king and king dissuade them not to self immolate and the king offered them gifts and financial support to the widows.

Italin traveller pietro della valle wrote –

“This burning of women upon the death of their husband is at their own choice to do it or not, and indeed few practice it.”

French Traveller jean Baptiste Tavernier visited India 5 times during the 16th century says –

“sati committed by women was voluntary and it is very difficult to dissuade the women who have decided to immolate themselves”.

He saw in Patna a young widow approached dutch governor requested permission for sati. He witnesses sati for the first time.

John Grose employee of East India company in his book voice to east indies in 1757-  

“Attributes the Hindu women’s affection and veneration for their husbands to early marriage”.

Nathaniel halhed a noted orientalist in 1779 wrote a letter to England

“From all accounts, i never saw forced immolations and all are voluntary”.

https://lostinblockchain.com/v/UdHgtNL7Y4c/FACTS-OF-SATI-SYSTEM

Like this i can give more statements.

I will mention some more in my next article.

So if we examine the total sati incidents based on epigraphic records and eye witness accounts from 1900 BCE to 1900 CE hardly 500 incidents occurred that means 1 case every 8 years.

If we go through the entire article we can understand our Hindu scriptures, culture or our society or administration never encouraged sati custom and it is voluntary and optional only.

In Fact, many tried to dissuade this sati practice. So many witnesses say we were astonished by valor, bravery, and love towards their husband, customs and culture.

So coming to the main part of sati.

Till the 19th century we have accounts of a few instances of sati but in the 19th century how thousands and lakhs of women immolating themselves as sati ritual was forced and religious obligation. Such stories were created and still, we are reading and believing.

They created fake narratives that the women were a victim of relatives and hungry brahmins and women were drugged and tied with ropes and forcefully thrown into fire.

Conclusion-

So in my next article more facts on sati system like what is Jauhar and why, how the British , missionaries, who is Raja ram, Mohan Roy? pseudo-intellectuals did fake propaganda, distorted the facts to make us feel inferior. Also, Who abolished sati system? When was sati banned?

We bharatiyagnanacharitra.in are trying to make aware of our present generation about the greatness of our Indian glory.

Sati system – Evangelical Missionaries, British forgery.

British and missionaries in india

Introduction

In the previous article sati practice, I wrote the historical facts whether sati practice is mandatory according to religious and legal texts, and also the foreign travellers’ accounts, sculpture evidence from ancient India period to pre british era

Now I will write the stunning facts how these colonials created and drilled into our minds about the lies on sati system and abolition of sati.

Sati system pdf downloadhttps://issuu.com/home/published/sati_system

Early British appreciation of Indian traditional background –

Before going to the British baptist missionaries manufactured debate on sati system, we will see how the east Indian company praised our Indian culture and civilisation when they set foot in India .

The records say that early English men are in full praise of our culture. How they evaluated and analysed our Hindu civilization which is very important to know which are not at all debated still today.

First of all, we should examine the first account by john grose account who is an east India company employee.

John grose views on india 

Another east Indian company employee testimonial by John Howell.

john howell on hindu texts

                                 Another employee Alexander Dow who is lieutenant of east India company military wrote a book in 1770 ( History of Hindustan)

Alexander dow book history of Hindustan

Other persons luke scrafton , Robert Orme , George Forster and few more also wrote good testimonials on Indian culture and traditions, knowledge.

They are not historians or they are not bound to write. They wrote without partiality what they have seen and read about Indian culture.

All of them are praising our culture and how well advanced in science and greatness of Sanskrit etc.

Sati system podcast downloadhttps://www.spreaker.com/episode/22469604

The Orientalists-

Warren hastings the first governor-general of India and he with a band of scholars encouraged to study the Indian sculptures, architecture, Ancient Indian texts, language, culture.

The group of orientalists who  made a systematic study and made lot of accounts , books, records about our Indian culture greatness to this mankind 

Warren hastings who has the passion of Indian culture and he used to visit kali ghat temple and also use to meet Sanskrit pandits in Banaras to understand the Indian texts and the culture.

He gathered a group of orientalists and they are Nathaniel halhed , Charles Wilkins, Jonathan Duncan and William Jones. Also H.T Colebrooke, H.H Wilson, James princep

These all people made lot of contribution to Indian culture , philosophy, archaeology etc.

Warren hastings said we should rule and make laws in  India through Indian institutions and ancient texts. He is not interested to bring English laws.

Hastings and this orientalists with the help of Vedic pandits translated the ancient Shastras with the expenses of the east Indian company.

In 1778 halhed published a grammar book of Bengali language. He said Sanskrit is the mother of all Indian languages.

Charles Wilkins, he engaged in the study of Sanskrit and he translated the Bhagavad Gita and this is the first translation into European languages from Sanskrit. He also translated hitopadesha and wrote a grammar of Sanskrit.

Asiatic society of bengal-

In 1784 with the patronage of hatings Asiatic Society of Bengal was established. This society gave the knowledge of India to westerners people through their articles, publications.

Willians jones translated Kalidas and it made European people think about the greatness of Indian literature.

H.T.Collebroke became head of Asiatic society and he also made a lot of contributions in publishing ancient antiquities. Jonathan Duncan, he established Sanskrit college in Banaras.

H.H. Wilson, he was secretary of Asiatic Society of Bengal. He translated Vishnu Puranas and Rigveda. He always praised Sanskrit which is the base of Indian culture.

These people all promoted and praised our Indian culture and made lot of contributions.

Other than these orientalists so many other European scholars also praised our Indian culture and told Indians were most civilised people.

Robert baker presented a paper to royal Asiatic society and he mentioned the mathematical exactness of stone instruments of the observatory in Banaras

So all these people who admired India and why in the end of the 18th century our India was suddenly projected as the land of evil customs.

The Evangelical movement-

Till now we saw the appreciation of Indian culture and why it suddenly the discourse has shifted against India.

In 1789 evangelical movement came in England to spread religion among masses. The principle of this movement is to avoid the turbulence, chaos, bloodshed brought by the french revolution so this is the only way to spread the religion.

When the french revolution is its high peak and millions of Bibles were distributed in Britain and evangelicals said the spread of bible brings prosperity to British and also to the land it controls.

The Evangelicals established societies like London missionary society(1795), Church missionary society(1799) and British and Foreign Bible Society (1804).

Charles grant brought these missionaries to India and he was the first person to argue that India must be baptised and westernised, Christianised. If we obtain these objectives then the British rule in India will be permanent.

The other English men use to say British rule may continue in India for almost for 50-60 years, but Charles grant is the first person to say if we take these steps of Christianizing India by bringing western education.

In 1786 He prepared a plan ‘’Mission to Bengal” by Dividing the Bengal into 8 missionary circles and set up schools and churches to propagated western education and Christianity.

He presented this plan to east India company in 1792 and after that, he became head of east India company and this document was printed as a parliamentary paper in 1813. 

This document exposes the evangelical mindset and it totally condemns and denounces the Hindu society.

2 Decades Before 1792 the same east Indian company men were praising the Indian society for their great culture, knowledge and civilisation.

From 1792 the discourse has changed against India after this document published (Observations on the state of society among the Asiatic subjects of great Britan).

In 1805 Charles grant was made the director of east India company and in 1806 James mill and Jeremy Bentham were leaders of the utilitarian movement in England and they formed an alliance with evangelicals.

James mill who never visited India and no idea of India but in 1806 he began to write Indian history. He echoes the Charles grant views and his book became a textbook to English men who enter into British service in India. He is the first person to write anti-Hindu books.

These utilitarians joined with missionaries and became a strong force. These were placed in the important position of east India company in India.

The missionaries are not allowed to India to preach Christianity in the company territory but they first entered into a dutch colony of Serampore in Bengal. The main people in Serampore missionary are Willian Carey, William ward, Joshua Marshman.

They played cunning tactics by preaching in the streets against Hinduism. William Carey created doubts in worshippers mind by creating confusion is worshipping lord Saraswathi is correct? He also propagated that brahmins are ignorant people and also Joshua Marshman also did the same thing. 

The first thing is they ridiculed the Hindu gods and also propagated against brahmins because they know brahmins are an obstacle to their conversions. Women were forced to jump into pyre by brahmins. Women were drugged and tied with ropes so that they cant run away. They once challenged a brahmin if you have the power in you then stop the sunset.

They compared the Hindu culture with poison and lowering the Hindu texts in the minds of people.

Female Infanticide 

They created a story of female infanticide and they passed a law in 1802 to ban female infanticide. The surprise is there is no protest because this practice is not existent. The created stories to convince British company that reformist Christian state was required in India.

But H.H.Wilson secretary of Asiatic society condemned by saying there is no such practice in Hindu society and it is very rare. Willian jones condemned there is no such practice.

Claudius Buchanan wrote publications against Hinduism and in 1811 William Ward also created accounts against Hinduism and sati pratha was high incidence, forced. Missionaries published these accounts widely in their journals to raise funds

Missionaries were not allowed to India except Serampore and if they arrive to India they were sent back to England because the British told it will affect their rule in India.

Missionaries were not allowed by the British parliament from 1793 to 1813. In every 20 years, east India company charter act is to be renowned. In 1813 missionaries requested for entry into India. The former east India company officials argued the missionary accounts were false which were written against India and they didn’t give permission to enter into India and henry Montgomery said missionaries will not get success in Christianizing India.

He made an interesting statement Women jumping into the pyre of their husband is not a religious rite and sati was not sanctioned by Hindu scriptures.

But finally with William Wilberforce intervention finally parliament agreed to give permission to missionaries to enter into British territory in India. The missionaries numerous petitions and influence made parliament to give permission to missionaries and missionaries entered into India to destroy our Hindu culture.

I wrote all the points because to tell the readers how the missionaries and some east india company officials made planning and cunning tactics to defame Indian culture and got permission. This made some other British officials viewpoint that India is a land of evil customs and English rule is a must to introduce a civilisation.

Missionary surveys – Role of baptist missionaries from England.

Here we divide this missionary propaganda into 2 phases and 1st phase -1803-1813 and 2nd phase-1813-1829.

In 1803 the missionaries appointed ten people to record the cases of sati in and around Calcutta. First of British got control and rule over Bengal region.so they had chosen this region.

In 1803 missionaries did survey in and around 30 km of Calcutta and recorded around 430 cases and basin on these numbers they calculated and assumed that thousands of sati incidents were happening all over India. William Carey wrote a letter in 1812 to his friend by saying every year 10000 forceful sati incidents are happening in India.

Charles grant who wrote book in 1792 before (1803)missionaries survey said every year 33000 women were murdered along with husband pyres without any study.

Government Survey-

Charles lushington who is a chief of the government condemned the missionaries survey and there was no base for the numbers.

This the first counter to missionaries propaganda.

In the 2nd phase from 1815-1824, the British government did surveys in the 3 presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and madras and they found 6632 sati daha pratha cases and 90% cases are from Bengal

In Bombay and madras presidency between 1815-1820 only 50 sati incidents occurred. South Malabar judge wrote a letter that no incidents occurred in his region and 2 incidents were stopped by the neighbours and family members.  He says the people resisted the sati system.

Madras and Bombay presidency judges also told sati incidents are very rare in their region.

Sati system in Bengal-

In history, nobody said a lot of sati is happening in Bengal, then why suddenly this exaggeration of thousands of cases have been created because Calcutta is the city of renaissance and land of intellectuals. Missionaries to accomplish their mission they created this non-sense.

The no of cases in Bengal presidency is very low but missionaries propagated that one husband has 30 wives and it continuously for 3 days the pyre was burning to complete the women immolation.

Eminent historian  Christopher Bayly says the number is an exaggeration to defame Hinduism. Between 1817 to 1827 only 4323 cases were recorded out of 160 million population of British ruling terrorism in India. He also says the practice of sati in the region of Calcutta is also very negligible.

As we discussed they were sati stones and temples in India. If it is true then why no sati stones exist in Bengal. 

Missionary propaganda-

Robert Pearce wrote in his correspondence that between 1756 to 1829 more than 70000 women were immolated and sati system in India was cruel. The baptist missionaries in Indian Journals propagated by 1829 that 1 million widows immolated in Bengal. How they got this number has no evidence.?

Missionaries also told that young girls of age 8 to 10 were thrown into pyre but According to government statistics, 60% of the widows who immolated themselves were older than 40 years.

One by one account keeps on increasing the figures of sati system.

Abolition of sati

In 1828 William Bentick was appointed as governor-general of India.

Before his arrival into India, he wrote a letter to his friend that he is going to take this sati issue very seriously and after arriving to India within 18 months he abolished sati system.

In 1829 baptist missionaries pleaded a petition to abolish sati and there was no resistance to this abolition sati act 1829.

After passing this act there was no single incident occurred. But how? They propagated thousands of women are immolating themselves but how it was stopped suddenly after passing the law. We should think about this. 

Actually, we have discussed it is negligible and already this sati system was dying at that time.

Who abolished sati?

The British historians wrote William Bentick who was the governor-general abolished sati and they made him a reformer. But we should know some real facts who abolished sati before the British. Please check the image below.

who stopped sati pratha

Raja ram Mohan Roy –

Who stopped sati system in India? We say raja ram Mohan Roy which we studied in our textbooks.

Who was raja ram moha, Roy? he is a social reformer in Bengal and fought against the sati.

There is an allegation raja ram Mohan Roy also echoed the British propaganda and supported English education and opposed Sanskrit. He loves Sanskrit but opposes Sanskrit.

He said Sanskrit education will keep the country in darkness. He praised British rule in India

Raja ram Mohan Roy has a friendship with British officials and he spent his life and died in London. He was part of a queen official meeting which is only restricted to English men.

https://indianexpress.com/article/trending/trending-in-india/how-one-tweet-caused-raja-ram-mohan-roy-sati-to-trend-on-twitter/

Special mention

George Forster 1782-many of Hindu widows especially in the MarathaRegion have acquired by their ability, their wealth, connection, or intrigue, the possession of extensive power and influence.

A judge is Bengal also wrote a letter that 52 women filed cases in court to acquire their husband properties.

But the British brought a law that inheritance of property to the widow is stuck down.. So taking this law as an advantage some of the widow neighbours forcefully burnt widows with husband pyre.

British policy and laws

Let us assume sati incidents were not recorded properly from the ancient period to till British. Lakhs of women were burnt then how come the population of India increased.

http://www.populstat.info/Asia/indiac.htm

Witchhunt in Europe

In the name of witch hunt, they burnt so many women in Europe.

More people died in France and England every month through suicide and duelling than widows burnt in a year -Abbe Dubois

Jauhar Kund Chittorgarh-

Here Jauhar is different and not related to sati. It was done by a group of women if their husbands die in a war and to protect their chastity from the invaders they did Jauhar. We saw already in Padmavati film.

Sati system in india- 

Sati sahagamana means not forcing the wife into the husband pyre. If the husband dies and the wife also dies immediately and her soul goes along with him that is called as sahagamana.

We have lot of examples seeing if a husband dies after hearing the news wife also died.

Sati in India today- 
In 1943-1987 30 incidents occurred in India and last sati pratha case occurred in Rajasthan by 1 18-year-old woman Roopa Kanwar. After that Government of India brought sati abolition act 1987 to stop these incidents.

In 2006 one incident occurred 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5273336.stm

https://edition.cnn.com/2019/07/16/us/husband-and-wife-die-same-day-71-years-trnd/index.html

Sati which i know-

Sati means not only jumping into the fire it may be dead after listening to the death news of her husband or committing suicide.

In my apartment, an old couple has a daughter and the daughter husband died due to health issues and after his death, she committed suicide by hitting a train. She told before if her husband dies she will also die. She loves her husband like anything even though he scolds her and beats hr also she still loves him.

Conclusion

So this article is big but i wrote to tell the facts and these British and missionaries did bad propaganda and it was adhered by the leftists’ historians also. 

In my childhood, i read in textbooks and in films i saw that sati system was prevalent in India and sati was an evil practice encouraged by Hindu scriptures.

So for more information please read the book written by Meenakshi Jain. She did 15 years research on this sati.

Finally, Does any Hindu philosophy support Sati Pratha?  Not at all.

https://www.amazon.in/Sati-Evangelicals-Missionaries-Changing-Discourse/dp/8173055521

People who know telugu can watch the below videos.

We bharatiyagnanacharitra.in are trying to make aware of our present generation about the greatness of our Indian glory.